Handloading or reloading is the process of loading firearm cartridges or shotgun shells by assembling the individual components (case/hull, primer, powder, and bullet/shot), rather than purchasing completely assembled, factory-loaded ammunition. The term handloading is the more general term, as it refers to assembly of ammunition using components from any source. Reloading refers more specifically to the assembly of ammunition re-using cases or shells from previously fired ammunition. The terms are often used interchangeably, as the techniques are largely the same whether using new or previously fired components. The differences lie in the preparation of the cases or shells; new components are generally ready to load, while previously fired components often need cleaning, removal of expended primers, and possibly other preparation to make them ready to load.

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